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Design and developmentEdit
de Havilland Canada's third STOL design was a big step up in size compared to its earlier DHC Beaver and DHC Otter, and was the first DHC design powered by two engines. The Caribou, however, was similar in concept in that it was designed as a rugged STOL utility. The Caribou was primarily a military tactical transport that in commercial service found itself a small niche in cargo hauling. The United States Army ordered 173 in 1959 and took delivery in 1961 under the designation AC-1 which then changed to CV-2 Caribou.
The majority of Caribou production was destined for military operators, but the type's ruggedness and excellent STOL capabilities also appealed to a select group of commercial users. US certification was awarded on 23 December 1960. Ansett-MAL, which operated a single example in the New Guinea highlands, and AMOCO Ecuador were early customers, as was Air America, (a CIA front in South East Asia during the Vietnam War era for covert operations). Other civil Caribou aircraft entered commercial service after being retired from their military users.
Today only a handful are in civil use.
In response to a US Army requirement for a tactical airlifter to supply the battlefront with troops and supplies and evacuate casualties on the return journey, de Havilland Canada designed the DHC-4. With assistance from Canada's Department of Defence Production, DHC built a prototype demonstrator that flew for the first time on 30 July 1958.
Impressed with the DHC4's STOL capabilities and potential, the US Army ordered five for evaluation as YAC-1s and went on to become the largest Caribou operator. The AC-1 designation was changed in 1962 to CV-2, and then C-7 when the US Army's CV-2s were transferred to the US Air Force in 1967. US and Australian Caribou saw extensive service during the Vietnam conflict.
The U.S. Army purchased 159 of the aircraft and they served their purpose well as a tactical transport during the Vietnam War, where larger cargo aircraft such as the C-123 Provider and the C-130 Hercules could not land on the shorter landing strips. The aircraft could carry 32 troops or two Jeeps or similar light vehicles. The rear loading ramp could also be used for parachute dropping (also, see Air America).
In 1967, a political decision was made by the United States Air Force who, believing that all fixed-wing aircraft operations were its own province, demanded that the Army turn over the Caribou. The Army ultimately traded the Caribou to the Air Force in exchange for an end to restrictions on Army helicopter operations. In addition, some US Caribou were captured by North Vietnamese forces and remained in service with that country through to the late 1970s.
Most of the C-7s have since been phased out of the US military. Other notable military operators included: Australia, Brazil, Canada, India, Malaysia and Spain.
In current service, the Royal Australian Air Force still operates 13 Caribous, which are due to be replaced beginning 2009, while Brazil's Caribous are slowly being replaced by more modern EADS CASA C-295 turboprop cargo airplanes.
- DHC-4 Caribou
- STOL tactical transport, utility transport aircraft.
- Royal Canadian Air Force designation for the DHC-4 Caribou.
- This designation was given to five DHC-4 Caribous, sold to the United States Army for evaluation.
- United States Army destination for the DHC-4 Caribou. Later redesignated CV-2A in 1962.
- United States Army AC-1 redesignated in 1962.
- This designation was given to a second batch of DHC-4 Caribous, which were sold to the US Army.
- This designation was given to all 134 US Army CV-2A/B Caribous, which were transferred to the US Air Force.
- DHC-4A Caribou
- Similar to the DHC-4, but this version had an increased take-off weight.
- DHC-4T Turbo Caribou
- A conversion of the baseline DHC-4 Caribou powered by the PWC PT6A-67T turboprop engines designed, test flown and certified by the Pen Turbo Aviation company.
- One aircraft used by the Seccion Aérea de la Guardia Civil
- Swedish Air Force operated one DHC-4 Caribou designated Tp 55 between 1962 and 1965 for evaluation purposes in F7 Wing.
- Air America
- Bannock Aerospace
- Chieftain Air
- Deutsche Aviation
- Environmental Research Institute of Michigan
- Fowler Aeronautical Service
- H A T Aviation Inc.
- John Woods Inc.
- New Cal Aviation
- Pen Turbo Aviation
- de Havilland AC-1 60-3767
- Exhibited at Travis AFB Museum, California
- de Havilland AC-1A 62-4188
- On display at New England Air Museum, Bradley Airport, Connecticut
- de Havilland CV-2B Caribou 63-9756
- Exhibited at Museum of Aviation, Warner Robins AFB, Georgia
- de Havilland CV-2B Caribou 63-9760
- Exhibited at Dover AFB Historical Center, Delaware.
- de Havilland C-7A Caribou 62-4193
- Exhibited at the National Museum of the United States Air Force, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio
The Fairchild C-123 Provider is a twin-engined military transport aircraft produced by the US American manufacturer Fairchild Aircraft, developed by Chase Aircraft.
Propulsion 2 Radial Engines Engine Model Pratt & Whitney R-2800-99W Double Wasp Engine Power (each) 1715 kW 2300 hp
Speed 367 km/h 198 kts
Service Ceiling 8.839 m 29.000 ft Range 2.367 km 1.278 NM 1.471 mi.
Empty Weight 13.562 kg 30.000 lbs max. Takeoff Weight 27.216 kg 60.000 lbs
Wing Span 33,53 m 110,0 ft Wing Area 113,6 m² 1223 ft² Length 23,09 m 75,8 ft Height 10,39 m 34,1 ft
- ↑ Serial MSP002 C-7A MSN 149
- ↑ Andrade 1982, p. 141.
- ↑ Kuwait Air Force (KAF) entry at the Scramble magazine website
- ↑ Malaysian Forces Overview entry at the Scramble magazine website
- ↑ Royal Air Force of Oman entry at the Scramble magazine website
- ↑ Caribou Roster
- ↑ Caribou Roster
- ↑ http://www.wings.de.ms
- ↑ John Andrade, Militair 1982, Aviation Press, London, ISBN 0 907898 01 7 Page 231
- Andrade, John. Militair 1982. London: Aviation Press, 1982. ISBN 0-907898-01-7.
- Caribou Roster at the deHavilland Caribou (DHC-4) and Buffalo (DHC-5) web site
- The C-7A Caribou Association
- Hotson, Fred W. The de Havilland Canada Story. Toronto: CANAV Books, 1983. ISBN 0-07-549483-3.
- Kuwait Air Force (KAF) entry at the Scramble magazine website
- Malaysian Forces Overview entry at the Scramble magazine website
- Royal Air Force of Oman entry at the Scramble magazine website
- GlobalSecurity.org: C-7 / CV-2 Caribou
- DHC-4T Turbo Caribou Imagery
- Replacing the Caribou: the Tango Charlie Option (DHC-4T) - Defence Today
- Bush planes